Usually days, the range is 3 days to 2 months65 The host must be susceptible to the infection for infection to occur. Factors influencing susceptibility are:
Infectious Agents as Tools of Mass Casualties Historically, outbreaks wars of microbial species against the human species have killed far more people than war itself. Worldwide, naturally occurring infectious diseases remain the major causes of death.
Still, a substantial number of people approximately 70, die each year from infectious diseases 2. The travel and trade necessary for economic globalization, continued potential for transmission of infectious agents from animals to humans, and large populations living in proximity in major urban areas of the world, make disease outbreaks a major threat.
The resistance of common pathogens to the available antimicrobial agents adds significantly to the threat. Advances in public health, diagnostic and pharmacological interventions are needed to protect the population from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
The global nature of infectious disease threats is well described in a statement prepared by Dr. BioterrorismNational Security and Law Bioterrorism has now been defined as the intentional use of a pathogen or biological product to cause harm to a human, animal, plant or other living organisms to influence the conduct of government or to intimidate or coerce a civilian population 4.
Biological agents are easy to develop as weapons, are more lethal than chemical weapons, are less expensive and more difficult to detect than nuclear weapons 5.
Diseases caused by biological agents are not only a public health issue but also a problem of national security. Two simulated biological attacks, Dark Winter small pox and TOPOFF plaguein the United States demonstrated serious weaknesses in the public health system that could prevent an effective response to bioterrorism or severe naturally occurring infectious diseases 6,7,8,9, The intentional dispersal of anthrax through the United States Postal Service that followed the terrorist attacks of September 11,brought these issues into a clear focus.
The United States government began a process to strengthen the public health infrastructure.
The need for law reform was recognized as law has long been considered as an important tool of public health Some states like Colorado and Rhode Island had developed legislation or administrative public health plans for a bioterrorism event prior to September 1, The Model Act was designed to update and modernize the state public statutes and to avoid problems of inconsistency, inadequacy and obsolescence.
This act provides state actors with the powers to detect and contain bioterrorism or a naturally occurring disease outbreak. The act also contains a modernized, extensive set of principles and requirements to safeguard personal rights.
NEJM, April The American Society for Microbiology ASM has testified before congress on issues surrounding biosecurity and has worked closely with congress in the drafting of Title II to balance Public Health concern over safely and security with need to protect legitimate scientific research and diagnostic testing.
The notice states that each facility should designate a responsible facility official RFO to complete the notification of possession form by September 10, The RFO will need to inventory the facility and consult with others e. Principal Investigators to obtain the required information.
In order to avoid inconsistencies and noncompliance, at the July meeting, it was recommended to the Committee that the Principal Investigators provide a complete list of all the biological agents being used in their laboratories.
The Safety Officer would then use the information needed to register with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and provide inspections to ensure safety and compliance with the requirements.
Historical Perspective and Trends Related to Bioterrorism The intentional use of living organisms or infected materials derived from them has occurred over centuries during war and "peace" time by armies, states, groups and individuals 14,15, One of the first recorded uses of a biological agent in the war was in BC.
The Carthaginian soldiers led by Hannibal used snakes in the battle against King Eumenes of Perganium and achieved a victory 17, As early as BC, the Greeks polluted the wells and drinking water supplies of their enemies with animal corpses.
The use of catapults and siege machines introduced new technology to biological warfare. Some of the more recent events of biological warfare are chronicled below - The Tartars catapulted bodies infected with plague into Caffa now Ukraine in at the end of a 3 day siege.
The inhabitants of Central and South America were decimated by small pox and measles that accompanied the Spanish conquistadors. British forces used blankets contaminated with small pox to infect North American Indians in the 18th century.
The modern era of biological weapons development began immediately before and during World War II. Between and Japanese unit dropped bombs containing up to 15 million plague infected fleas on two Chinese cities - Quxian and Ning-hsien, resulting in at least deaths.
Water supplies and food items were contaminated with B. Weather Undergrounda United States revolutionary group intended to obtain agents at Ft.The recommendations against non-essential travel, including education-related travel, are in place to help control the Ebola virus outbreak and prevent continued spread of the virus.
It is impossible to predict exactly how long the outbreak will take to control.
Given the gravity of the Ebola outbreak, politicians should stick to a simple, awareness-based policy as they respond to this medical emergency.
While recovery will inevitably be slow, quarantine and widespread awareness are the strategies most conducive to . Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be a likely natural host of the Ebola virus, with sporadic disease and outbreaks amongst other species such as chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys and forest antelope occurring from time-to-time.
arriving from areas affected by the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease have raised legal and constitutional questions about federal and state authority to order quarantine and isolation measures. Both the federal and state governments have authority to impose isolation and quarantine measures to help prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
May 09, · The government of Congo declared a new outbreak of Ebola after at least two people were infected and possibly as many as 17 died from the disease in the country's northwest. The epicenter of this latest Ebola virus outbreak is smack in the center of local military clashes, in and around the town of Beni.
“The situation is this,” Tedros said.