Thus, as with other protected categories like gender or race, a pregnant employee may establish her claim by showing that she was treated less favorably than "similarly situated" non-pregnant employees.
History[ edit ] The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as construction materials and may or may not have walls or barriers. The word stems from the Latin officiumand its equivalents in various, mainly romance, languages.
An officium was not necessarily a place, but rather an often mobile 'bureau' in the sense of a human staff or even the abstract notion of a formal position, such as a magistrature.
The relatively elaborate Roman bureaucracy would not be equaled for centuries in the West after the fall of Romeeven partially reverting to illiteracy, while the East preserved a more sophisticated administrative culture, both under Byzantium and under Islam.
Offices in classical antiquity were often part of a palace complex or a large temple. There was usually a room where scrolls were kept and scribes did their work.
Ancient texts mentioning the work of scribes allude to the existence of such "offices". These rooms are sometimes called "libraries" by some archaeologists and the general press because one often associates scrolls with literature.
In fact they were true offices since the scrolls were meant for record keeping and other management functions such as treaties and edicts, and not for writing or keeping poetry or other works of fiction.
Middle Ages[ edit ] The High Middle Ages — saw the rise of the medieval chancerywhich was usually the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom.
The rooms of the chancery often had walls full of pigeonholes, constructed to hold rolled up pieces of parchment for safekeeping or ready reference, a precursor to the book shelf.
The introduction of printing during the Renaissance did not change these early government offices much. An early European office Medieval illustrations, such as paintings or tapestries, often show people in their private offices handling record-keeping books or writing on scrolls of parchment.
All kinds of writings seemed to be mixed in these early forms of offices. Before the invention of the printing press and its distribution there was often a very thin line between a private office and a private library since books were read or written in the same space at the same desk or tableand general accounting and personal or private letters were also done there.
It was during the 13th century that the English form of the word first appeared when referring to a position involving duties ex. Geoffrey Chaucer appears to have first used the word in to mean a place where business is transacted in The Canterbury Tales. As mercantilism became the dominant economic theory of the Renaissancemerchants tended to conduct their business in the same buildings, which might include retail sales, warehousing and clerical work.
The Old Admiralty Ripley Building was built in as a three-storey U-shaped brick building and was the first purpose built office building in Great Britain. As well as offices, the building housed a board room and apartments for the Lords of the Admiralty.
In the s, many scattered offices for the Royal Navy were gathered into Somerset Housethe first block purpose-built for office work. The company employed an army of bureaucrats to administer its territories in India. The Company developed a very complex bureaucracy for the task, which required thousands of office employees to process the necessary paperwork.
The Company recognized the benefits of centralized administration, and required that all workers sign in and out at the central office, daily.
To transact business, an increasing large number of clerks were needed to handle order-processing, accounting, and document filing, with increasingly specialized office space required to house these activities.
Most of the desks of the era were top heavy with paper storage bins extending above the desk-work area, giving the appearance of a cubicle and offering the workers some degree of privacy.Dr. Sheelan Misra, Professor & Head, Department of Management Studies (MBA) The Master of Business Administration program at New Horizon College of Engineering is a two year full time autonomous program affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University.
Good Communication Improves Employee Morale A recent survey by US staffing agency, Accountemps found that one third of HR managers cited communication issues as the main cause of staff morale issues. Communication was also the most popular solution to the problem of low morale, with [ ].
Industria Risk & Insurance Services was founded by forward-thinking and creative industry and product development experts. We have years invested in learning your business from the ground up. Effective Communication and Employee Morale: TransAct Insurance Case Study Communication is a vital component to every organization ranging from small town business all the way to high echelon divisions within the Military.
A consolidation question will be decided next week by members of LyonCoffey Electric Cooperative and Radiant Electric Cooperative.
If the special question passes, plans are to consolidate the two electric cooperatives to form 4 Rivers Electric Cooperative, effective Jan. 1, Organizations understand that effective communication at all levels of the organization improve many would benefit from improving employee relations, communication, and morale (Waggoner, ).
EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION AFFECTS EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE, HAPPINESS, AND JOB.