The mainstream research and studies on conflict resolution have until now relied in large measure on theories, principles, models, methods, processes, cases, practices and body of literature developed in Western cultures and institutions. However, little or no attention has been given to the systems and processes of conflict resolution that were historically utilized in ancient societies or are currently being used by traditional rulers - kings, queens, chiefs, village heads - and indigenous leaders at the grassroots level and in different parts of the world to mediate and resolve disputes, restore justice and harmony, and foster peaceful coexistence in their various constituencies, communities, regions and countries. Also, a thorough investigation of the syllabi and portfolios of the courses in the field of conflict analysis and resolution, peace and conflict studies, alternative dispute resolution, conflict management studies, and related fields of study confirms the wide spread, but false, assumption that conflict resolution is a Western creation. Although traditional systems of conflict resolution predate the modern theories and practices of conflict resolution, they are almost, if not completely, unavailable in our conflict resolution text books, course syllabi, and public policy discourse.
Delegates at the Korean Armistice Agreement achieved negative peace, ending the war but not the wider conflict The negative and positive peace framework is the most widely used today. Negative peace refers to the absence of direct violence. Positive peace refers to the absence of indirect and structural violenceand is the concept that most peace and conflict researchers adopt.
This is often credited to Galtung  but these terms were previously used by Martin Luther King in the Letter from a Birmingham Jail inin which he wrote about "negative peace which is the absence of tension" and "positive peace which is the presence of justice.
Several conceptions, models, or modes of peace have been suggested in which peace research might prosper. The premise is simple for peace researchers: Second, the view that violence is sinful or unskillful, and that non-violence is skillful or virtuous and should be cultivated.
This view is held by a variety of religious traditions worldwide: Quakers, Mennonites and other Peace churches within Christianity; Jainsthe Satyagraha tradition in HinduismBuddhismand other portions of Indian religion and philosophy ; as well as certain schools of Islam [ citation needed ].
A further approach is that there are multiple modes of peace. These range from the well known works of KantLockeRousseauPaineon various liberal international and constitutional and plans for peace. UdayakumarTom Woodhouseothers mentioned above and many more.
Democratic peaceliberal peace, sustainable peace, civil peace, hybrid peace, post-liberal peace, trans-rational peace s and other concepts are regularly used in such work.
Sustainable peace[ edit ] Under the conceptions of peace, sustainable peace must be regarded as an important factor for the future of prosperity. Sustainable peace must be the priority of global society where state actors and non-state actors do not only seek for the profits in a near future that might violate the stable state of peace.
For a sustainable peace, nurturing, empowerment, and communications are considered to be the crucial factors throughout the world. Firstly, nurturing is necessary to encourage psychological stability and emotional maturity. The significance of social value in adequate nurturing is important for sustainable peace.
Secondly, in order to achieve real security, inner security must be secured along with arranged social systems and protection based on firm foundation. Lastly, communications are necessary to overcome ignorance and establish a community based on reliable and useful information.
It will prevents isolation to take place which is critical to bring sustainable peace. It reflects the normative aim of preventing, managing, limiting and overcoming violence. Death by avoidable reasons such as malnutrition.
Structural violence is indirect violence caused by an unjust structure and is not to be equated with an act of God.The Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies is pleased to announce that the Cambodia Peace Museum will open on October 23, CPCS has chosen this .
Peace Perceptions Poll A survey of over , people on peace and conflict issues. Read the findings. Prof. Holsti's book is a must for students of conflict studies. The very thorough and well organized review of sources of conflict is broken into logical groupings of history.
International Conflict Research. 'INCORE's vision is of a world where divided societies are transformed from violent conflict to sustainable peace.'. Peace Operations Training Institute® InternatIonal HumanItarIan law and tHe law of armed ConflICt Course Author Antoine A.
Bouvier series editor Harvey J. Langholtz, Ph.D. The war against the Greater Middle East should end with the withdrawal of US troops within the next six months. And yet nothing proves that peace will settle in each of the countries that were.