China brain Ned Block  argues against the functionalist proposal of multiple realizabilitywhere hardware implementation is irrelevant because only the functional level is important. The "China brain" or "Chinese nation" thought experiment involves supposing that the entire nation of China systematically organizes itself to operate just like a brain, with each individual acting as a neuron. The tremendous difference in speed of operation of each unit is not addressed.
By learning more about their lives and works, you will gain a better understanding of the influence they had on behaviorism.
Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who first discovered and described the conditioning reflex. Watson is often described as the father of behaviorism.
Skinner was an influential thinker responsible for introducing operant conditioning and schedules of reinforcement.
Edward Thorndike introduced a psychological principle known as the law of effect. According to this principle, responses that produce a satisfying effect are more likely to occur again in the future.
Conversely, responses that produce undesirable effects become less likely to occur again in the future. Clark Hull was a psychologist who utilized drive theory to explain learning and motivation. According to this theory, deprivation creates needs and drives, which then lead to behavior.
Because this behavior is goal-oriented, the behavior itself is important for survival. Sechenov introduced the concept of inhibitory responses in the central nervous system.
The article outlined the many of the main points of behaviorism. Contributions of Behaviorism to Psychology Behaviorism was a major force in psychology during the first half of the twentieth-century and played an important role in establishing psychology as a science rather than a philosophical pursuit.
However, it is important to note that the behavioral school of thought does have some weaknesses. Behaviorism can be helpful in understanding certain types of learning, but it leaves out important elements such as emotions, moods, and cognitions.
It also does not explain learning that take place without association, reinforcement, or punishment. A number of important psychotherapeutic techniques have been derived from behavioral principles. Token economies, aversion therapy, modeling, behavior analysis, and systematic desensitization are just some of the methods that are based upon principles from behaviorism.
Behaviorism greatest contributions to the field of psychology may just be the many practical applications, by helping people learn new behaviors and eliminate unwanted or unhealthy behaviors.
Final Thoughts While behaviorism is not as dominant today as it was during the middle of the 20th-century, it still remains an influential force in psychology. Outside of psychology, animal trainers, parents, teachers and many others make use of basic behavioral principles to help teach new behaviors and discourage unwanted ones.
The Work of the Digestive Glands. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, The first two major schools of psychology to emerge during this time were known as structuralism and functionalism.
While neither of these schools held up long as psychology progressed as a science, they did make important contributions to the development of modern psychology.
Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Psychology, Psychoanalysis and a Review of Psychology. Pages: 6 ( words) Published: January 29, Unit 9 Project Kaplan University Gestalt psychology emerged in Germany as a response against Wilhelm Wundt’s structuralism. Psychological Approaches: Functionalism, Structuralism, Gestalt, Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism Approaches to Psychology.
Functionalism is the theory that defines mental states by their function. The first two major schools of psychology to emerge during this time were known as structuralism and functionalism.
While neither of these schools held up long as psychology progressed as a science, they did make important contributions to the development of modern psychology. Apr 16, · The meeting’s discussion illustrated the 3 first schools of Psychology: structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism.
According to him, psychology as a . Functionalism, Behaviorism, and Evolutionary Psychology: Rise, fall, and contributions to developmental psychopathology The history of psychology is filled with the rise and fall of different schools of thought, from structuralism to humanistic psychology, each of which has contributed greatly to the development of the field of psychology.