See Article History Wicca, a predominantly Western movement whose followers practice witchcraft and nature worship and who see it as a religion based on pre- Christian traditions of northern and western Europe.
Origins[ edit ] In the 16th and 17th centuries, something known as the witch hunt took place across Europe and the American colonies, during which somewhere between 40, andpeople were killed.
These people had been accused of being witcheswho, according to their persecutors, worshipped the Deviland committed acts of diabolism that included the cannibalism of children and desecration of the Eucharist.
Most scholars since have agreed that these were the victims of isolated incidents of hysteria in remote, peasant communities, and that there was no religion being practised by these witches. However this was not the only view; one, which originated with Karl Ernst Jarcke inand which was expanded upon most notably by Jules Michelet in the s and Margaret Murray in the early 20th century, known as the Witch-cult hypothesisclaimed that the witches had been members of a pan-European pagan religion which had pre-dated Christianity and had been persecuted by the Christian Church as a rival religion.
Many Wiccans, particularly those of the early decades, believed that their religion was a continuation of this pagan Witch-Cult. It was only in the s and s that some Wiccans began to see the idea of the Witch-Cult as a creation myth rather than as historical fact.
We Neopagans now face a crisis. As new data appeared, historians altered their theories to account for it. Therefore an enormous gap has opened between the academic and the "average" Pagan view of witchcraft. We avoid the somewhat dull academic texts that present solid research, preferring sensational writers who play to our emotions.
At the same time he propagated his religion to new adherents, largely through the Bricket Wood coven which is described further below.
Gardner claimed that he had been initiated into a practising coven of the cult in Septembera group that has become known as the New Forest coven.
Gardner claimed that this group had met in the New Forest in southern England, and that he had met some of their members initially through the occultic Rosicrucian Order Crotona Fellowship.
He mentioned two of their members, a local worthy called " Old Dorothy ", in whose house he claimed to have been initiated, and " Dafo ", who became a friend of his and would remain so for many years.
Matriarchal interpretations of the archaeological record and the criticism of such work continue to be matters of academic debate. Some academics carry on research in this area such as the World Congress on Matriarchal Studies.
Critics argue that such matriarchal societies never actually existed and are an invention of researchers such as Margaret Murray. This is disputed by documentaries such as Blossoms of Fire about contemporary Zapotec society. The idea of a supreme Mother Goddess was common in Victorian and Edwardian literature: Such doubts have been vigorously contested by other researchers notably Philip Heselton.
Valiente assumed that Clutterbuck was the same individual as Dafo. More recently, it has become clear that they were different people. The work of Philip Heselton has gone a considerable way towards illuminating the composition and activities of the New Forest Coven, and several candidates for its membership aside from Dorothy and Dafo emerge from his work.Essay about Witchcraft In U.S.
History The religion of Witchcraft dates back about 25, years, to the Paleolithic Age, where the God of Hunting and the Goddess of Fertility first appeared.
Out of respect for the overwhelming power of Nature grew a belief in beings, gods, who controlled the winds, the seas, the earth and the fires (Rinehart).
Wicca is an Old English word that means “The Wise Ones” or “Keepers of Knowledge”. Wicca is one of the most ancient followings.
Wicca is a Neo-Pagan following with many traditions that date to pre-Christian times. History Essay 07/12/11 Student No. Group L James Moran Were the witch-hunts a war against women? Essay on Witchcraft of the Past. Witchcraft of the Past What images does the word "witch" create in a person’s mind?
Most people would tend to think of an old woman wearing a black, cone-shaped hat, with a large mole on her face, and perhaps flying on her broom.
Witchcraft Essay Topics List: Best Ideas for Magic is a complex of ritual ceremonies and actions that, according to the convictions of their performers, can cause spiritual influence on the surrounding world with a certain practical purpose.
Christianity started around four BC (History of Christianity, ; Anonymous, Timeline of Christianity, ) yet Wicca was said to have started around BC (Anonymous, Timeline of Neopaganism, Wicca, and Witchcraft, ).