In a model of history probably first posited by Petrach and developed and disseminated by Italian Renaissance Humanists, it was believed that there were two epochs of cultural excellence, the Classical and their own. These were separated by a terrible period of ignorance and barbarism, the Dark and Middle Ages. The Germanic invaders, the Goths, were held to be largely responsible for this culturally catastrophic interregnum.
We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! It is now hard to grasp Constantinople as a greater city than Rome, but there would have been little in Rome's favor in Psellus' day.
Even so, in the midst of Istanbul, it mostly still remains standing, in some places even restored, its breaches merely allowing modern streets to pass [ note ]. That's not the Roman Empire! That's some horrible medieval thing! As Roman historians liked to use archaic place names, and so frequently called Constantinople "Byzantium," their use of "Byzantine," Byzantinus, was simply and logically for residents of the Capital.
The Suda [a tenth century encyclopedia] calls [the historian] Malchus [of Philadelphia] a "Byzantine," which usually meant a native of Constantinople but in this case must have meant a longtime resident.
German, envoys, in an embassy from Otto Iwith their own pretentions as successors of Rome, arrived at the Court of Nicephorus Phocas intheir represenation of Otto as the "Emperor of the Romans" Imperator Romanorum was hotly disputed.
Otto was not a successor of Constantine. A letter then arrived from the Pope addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks.
Evidently the Pope had not heard of "Byzantium" as the name of the Empire [ note ]. While "Byzantium" is indeed used merely as a term of convience and custom by most historians, there is the awkward question of when "Rome" ends and "Byzantium" begins. If Rome "fell" inthen clearly "Byzantium" should begin there; but this boundary is rarely used.
Since Constantinople itself must be explained, Byzantine histories commonly begin with Constantine, often inwhen Constantine had defeated Lincinius and acquired the East. This is what one finds in A. The flip side of this would be simply to end the "Roman Empire" with Constantine.
This is not common, but I have seen Garrett G. With thirty-six lectures on Emperors, Fagan abruptly stops at Constantine, with a handoff to Kenneth W. Harl's lectures, "The World of Byzantium" , to continue the story. Fagan says that, to him, Constantine was the first Mediaeval, or the first Byzantine, Emperor; and so his job is done.
The drawback of this approach is that the last century and a half of the Western Empire falls between the stools, not to mention the extraordinary and tragic Julianwho ruled the whole Empire. A Byzantinist is not going to pay much attention to Ricimeras Harl, who doesn't even mention his name, indeed does not.English literature - The Restoration: For some, the restoration of King Charles II in led many to a painful revaluation of the political hopes and millenarian expectations bred during two decades of civil war and republican government.
For others, it excited the desire to celebrate kingship and even to turn the events of the new reign into signs of a divinely ordained scheme of things. Gothic Revival term papers analyze the architectural style popular in England beginning in the s.
The Gothic Revival was an architectural style popular in England beginning in the s. It gained worldwide popularity during the 19th century. 2. 19th Century American Landscape Art. An independent America offered more opportunity to everyone, including artists.
Although photography (invented ) eventually replaced painting as a chronicler of events and experience, 19th century America relied on painters to record these things.
AFAM Intro to African American Studies This course provides an overview of African American history and culture. Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.
heartoftexashop.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of heartoftexashop.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere. Students can save on their education by taking the heartoftexashop.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course.
The Little House in Louisville, GA is a rare grand example of residential Gothic Revival construction in Georgia. With 5, square feet situated on acres, the house was built in at an estimated cost of $4, and features remarkable detailing both on the interior and exterior.