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Language based taxonomies for personality traits have been widely used as a method for developing personality models.
This method, based on the logic of the lexical hypothesisuses adjectives found in language that describe behaviours and tendencies among individuals. The identified adjectives are distilled down through factor analysis to yield a manageable number of groups of related personality traits.
Research studies based on the lexical hypothesis described above were first undertaken in the English language. Comparisons of the results revealed as many as six emergent factors, in similar form across different languages including English.
The six factors are measured through a series of questions designed to rate an individual on levels of each factor. An additional 25th narrow facet, called Altruism, is also included and represents a blend of the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness factors. The six factors, their facets, and the personality-descriptive adjectives that typically belong to these six groups are as follows: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality Adjectives: Emotional, oversensitive, sentimental, fearful, anxious, vulnerable versus brave, tough, independent, self-assured, stable Extraversion X: Outgoing, lively, extraverted, sociable, talkative, cheerful, active versus shy, passive, withdrawn, introverted, quiet, reserved Agreeableness A: Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience Adjectives: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence Adjectives: Though it was not a direct result of this desire, due to this pursuit and decades of effort later; the HEXACO model would become established.
Due to the difficult task of assessing personality, it was accepted that a systematic method should be used, and the agreed upon approach was to use factor analysis.
This, however, posed a new problem, as determining which traits to use in a factor analysis was a source of much debate. The solution to this problem was based on the lexical hypothesis.
Simply put, this hypothesis suggests that personality traits of importance in a society will lead to the development of words to describe both high and low levels of these traits. The first use of the lexical approach is attributed to Baumgartnera Swiss industrial psychologist who used it to categorize words in the German language.
Though Baumgartner was the first to use it, she was shortly followed by Allport and Odbert inwho used the approach on the English language. It would be in their work, in which they tediously pored through a dictionary, that a list of roughly 18, words was created.
This was then condensed to just words and used to described personality traits. This list of words was reduced down to 35 terms by researcher Raymond Cattell. After allowing other researchers to rate the list, he performed a factor analysis, which produced 12 factors.
However, replications by other researchers failed to produce this number most likely due to the developing nature of the factor analysis method.
Although the 12 factors were not replicated, there were five traits that were being consistently produced. These 5 traits would become the foundation of the Big 5 model of personality assessment and would be later supported by replication studies that used more words than Cattell had in his previous research.
As the Big 5 became more and more accepted, it led to researchers wondering if these traits would be consistently found in other languages. After several studies, throughout multiple languages, it was found that the Big 5 were indeed consistently found in other languages. Through the expansion of research into other languages, it was found that there was a sixth trait that kept appearing.
This trait was what would become the honesty-humility trait. The discovery of the honesty-humility trait in other languages led researchers to wonder why it wasn't found in the original English language studies.
This was answered when modern computers were used to determine that there was indeed an occurrence of this sixth trait in the English language.
By using the complete set of words that had previously been grouped into 75 different clusters, the replications showed the existence of the sixth trait that was previously missing. This model consists of the five personality factors collectively known as the "Big Five".
The two remaining Big Five factors, called Agreeableness and Neuroticism with the opposite pole of the latter factor being Emotional Stabilityare similar to the Agreeableness and Emotionality factors of the HEXACO model — but with some differences in the content of the factors.
The Big Five factors do not include an Honesty-Humility factor, but some of the characteristics belonging to Honesty-Humility are incorporated into the Big Five's Agreeableness factor. Although earlier investigations found only the Big Five factors, more recent studies conducted in various languages including English with larger sets of adjectives recovered six factors, as summarized above.
Factor names were selected on the basis of the common meaning of the characteristics within each factor. For the sake of example, traits like narcissism or manipulativeness can be evaluated with the honesty-humility trait included in the model. Honesty-Humility, Emotionality and Agreeableness are proposed to be measures of Altruistic versus Antagonistic behaviour.
Honesty-Humility and Agreeableness both measure two different aspects of Reciprocal altruismhigh levels of which indicate a propensity for helping behaviour and cooperation as opposed to the exploitation of others.The Importance of Honesty in Recovery October 25, abuse, addiction, Addiction treatment options, rehab inspiration, relapse prevention, relapse prevention strategies, tips for families and friends.
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This article reveals the importance of sex in a relationship. As a leader, the importance you place on honesty can create the kind of work culture in which your employees feel empowered and validated. For example, do you frequently solicit feedback from rank.
We have to lie about our sexual activities, how we’ve been spending our time, consequences of our behavior, and our spiritual lives. 8 thoughts on “The importance – and limits – of honesty in recovery from addiction” scholarship says: September 24, at pm and limits - of honesty in recovery Accepting and dealing.
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