Thermodynamics of borax

University of Florida Abstract The stability of borate minerals is an important consideration for assessing biogeochemical processes in primordial and extant Earth-surface environments, in addition to many industrial applications. Borate minerals are found in a variety of environments from playas to evaporite deposits and serve as the most important industrial source of boron used in glass production, fire retardation, and cleaning purposes. Despite the geological and industrial importance of borate minerals, their phase stability and formation remains poorly constrained.

Thermodynamics of borax

Roy a, Lakshmi N. Roy a, Marcia Lawson a, Kathleen M. The constants were determined from electromotive force measurements made with the cell, PtIH 2 g, 1 atm ]borax in synthetic seawaterlAgCl, Ag. The results are discussed in terms of "total" hydrogen ion scale.

Our results are in excellent agreement d: This study demonstrates that the measure- ments made by Dickson a are more reliable than the earlier measurements Buch, ; Lyman, ; Hansson, b and should be used in all future studies of the carbonate system in seawater. Our contributes to the alkalinity of seawater.

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This requires reliable dissociation constants for the dissocia- 2. Materials and methods tion of boric acid in seawater: Quadruplicate analyses These measurements made on the total agreed well within Thermodynamics of borax The analytical reagent grade measurements of BuchLyman borax Na2B The product was found to This paper presents measurements of the be The molality of HC1 R.

In order to keep the formal ionic strength constant, 2 mmolal NaC1 0. All dilutions were made using MgCI2 0. The emf data through- was determined gravimetrically by dilution of the out an experimental run never differed on the stock solution obtained from the middle fraction average, by more than 0.

These results of the second distillate of the constant-boiling demonstrate the stability of emf cells.

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It is important to note that measurements were made at each concentration. This indicated the correct corrected barometric pressure, aw is the activity extent of hydration in the recrystallized sample of water in synthetic seawaters Millero and of borax Na2BH Buoyancy correc- Leung,and Pw is the vapor pressure of tions were applied to all weighings.

The emf data were obtained using the cell: PtlH2 g, 1 atm lborax in synthetic 3. Results seawatertAgC1; Ag 2 The borax salt in water dissolves according to: The corrected emf data E as a function of temperature and molality of borax 0.

The silver-silver chloride electro- potential for: The expression for the 0. A plot of the right hand side of Eq. The buffer ratio in Eq. The con- Our values of lnK Fig. In summary our Dickson and Riley, We feel concentration of chloride in the buffer.

Thermodynamics of borax

The pH that our results also demonstrate that the of a 0. The values of pH at other temperatures and should be used in all future studies of the can be estimated from: The pH of 0. Thermodynamics of boric acid in syntheticseawater form Standard potential of the reaction: The estimation of acid 45 The ionic product of water-- Kw.

Determination of the acidity constant of in calibrating potentiometric and spectro- boric acid in synthetic sea water media. A new set of acidity constants for car- Acknowledgements bonic acid and boric acid in sea water.

Thermodynamics of borax

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Aluminum: Al(s) 0: 0: AlCl 3 (s) Al 2 O 3 (s) Aqueous Solutions: Ca 2+ (aq) CO 3 2-(aq) To determine the thermodynamic quantities H and S for the solvation reaction of borax in water, by measuring the solubility product constant over .