Counter Reformation— the response of Roman church to the Protestant Reformation wherein beliefs were clarified, reaffirmed, and justified. A few main themes that can guide your discussion of all the major Italian Renaissance works include: The revival of classical styles and ideas specifically humanismreturn to the naturalistic style 3D objects and spaceand the rising status of the individual both artist and patron.
Gregorian chant Plainsong is also called plainchant. More specific terms such as Gregorian chantAmbrosian chantGallican chant are also found.
Generally speaking, they all refer to a style of monophonicunaccompanied, early Christian singing performed by monks and developed in the Roman Catholic Church mainly during the period The differences may be marginal—or even great, in some cases.
These differences reflect the great ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity that existed after the fall of the Roman Empire on the Italian peninsula.
Different monastic traditions arose within the Roman Catholic Church throughout Italy, but at different places and at different times. Even a musical non-specialist can hear the difference, for example, between the straightforward tone production in the Ambosian chants from Milan and the chants from Beneventowhich display a distinct "eastern" ornamental quiver in the voice, reflecting the vocal traditions of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Yet, in spite of the differences, the similarities are great. In any event, the formal Gregorian chant was imposed throughout Italy byalthough the music of Greeks rites continued to be heard at various places on the peninsula, especially in those places which Byzantium had once held, such as Ravenna or in the southern peninsula, which had been a refuge for those Greeks fleeing the great Byzantine iconoclast controversies before the year Obviously, where Greek rites were practiced, the chants were sung in the Greek language and not in Latinas they were in the Roman Catholic liturgy.
Music of the Trecento[ edit ] Main article: Music of the Trecento Francesco Landini, the most famous composer of the Trecento, playing a portative organ illustration from the Fifteenth-century Squarcialupi Codex The Trecentofrom about towas a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts, including painting, architecture, literature, and music.
The music of the Trecento pioneered new forms of expression, especially in secular song and in the use of vernacular language, Italian. In these regards, the music of the Trecento may seem more to be a Renaissance phenomenon; however, the predominant musical language was more closely related to that of the late Middle Agesand musicologists generally classify the Trecento as the end of the medieval era.
This was the age of the great vernacularization of language in Italy—indeed, throughout Europe; that is, people started to write and sing songs in their native language, which was not Latin, but whatever brand of vernacular medieval neo-Latin was spoken in their area.
Thus, Dante showed with the Divine Comedy in that the common language his was called "Tuscan" and not "Italian" until as late as the 18th century could be a vehicle for fine literature.
Logically, that extended to the lyrics of the songs that people sang. Two points are worth mentioning in this regard: Words were written down with much more ease than melodies were notated.
Thus, we know that there was a vibrant troubador tradition in the 12th century in the Provence in their language and we know that miles away on the island of Sicily there was also a vibrant troubador tradition at the Hohenstaufen court of Frederick IIsongs sung in the dialect of the people very much influenced, for example, by Arabicbut it is conjecture as to exactly what either one sounded like.
We only know that southern French folk music, today, sounds quite a bit different from Sicilian folk music. Since folk music is relatively conservative in that it resists rapid change, we may assume that at least some of the obvious differences in melody, scales and approach to vocalising that exist now, existed then.
The call and response nature of much popular choral singing in the Middle Ages—that is, a soloist singing a line that is then answered by a group—found its way into medieval church music as a way of involving all members of the congregation.
The complicated polyphonies of what is called the Ars Nova began to be heard in the 14th century and 15th century; popular items such as madrigals employed increasing dense overlays of different melodies sung at the same time, the point being to create an interwoven and euphonious texture of sound; this is NOT the same as harmonythe sounding of many notes together in order to form a chord.
That is a later invention. Nevertheless, the move from the monophonic sounds of chants to the many simultaneous melodies of polyphony does represent a revolution in our musical perceptions: The Renaissance[ edit ] Most people do not think of music when they hear the term Renaissance.
Yet, in the same sense that architects, painters, and sculptors of the 16th century were paying tribute to the newly rediscovered values of classical Greecepoets and musicians of that period attempted to do the same thing.
The years between and are the most revolutionary period in European musical history; it is the century in which harmony was developed and the century that gave birth to opera. These two developments are connected.
Readers will have noted the move from the monophony of Gregorian chants to the complicated polyphonies of madrigals and other music of the few centuries before The next shift in musical perception involves a less common term: The desire—perhaps need—for homophonic music arose from a number of factors.
First, there was a rejection of overly complicated polyphony of many different melodies running at the same time:Disegno is the Key Intellectual Element in Art.
Central to disegno was the use of drawings as the basic building blocks of a finished composition. By contrast, Colorito employed the direct application of colour (paint), to the canvas or panel.
The distinction has a critical philosophical dimension. Quattrocento: Quattrocento,, the totality of cultural and artistic events and movements that occurred in Italy during the 15th century, the major period of the Early Renaissance. Designations such as Quattrocento (s) and the earlier Trecento (s) and the later Cinquecento .
RENAISSANCE ART: GENERAL Top of page. Renaissance (through ArtLex). Examples of earlier Renaissance works of art, by artists born before ; Examples of later Renaissance works of art, by artists born after European Art in the Renaissance: Thematic Essays (through the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History).
Albrecht Dürer (–). This article is about Italian military operations in World War I.. Although a member of the Triple Alliance, the Kingdom of Italy did not join the Central Powers, the German Empire and the Empire of Austria-Hungary, when the war started on 28 July In fact, Germany and Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive while the Triple Alliance was supposed to be a defensive alliance.
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